Alienation of Affection Laws

Alienation of affection is a term used to point to a tort action brought by a deserted spouse against an individual or a group of individuals who are held responsible for the failure of the marriage. A tort is a wrongful act which causes injury or loss to someone. Tort laws deal with such acts where a persons behaviour or act causes an unfair injury or loss to another person. A tort can be intentional or accidental, but not illegal. Tort laws allow victims of tort to recover their losses. Although alienation of affection law is considered outdated and prehistoric by many, there are lawsuits related that can be justified even today. This subject brings numerous legal issues and often brings up questions which cant be answered by the common man that Experts can answer. The top five queries related to alienation of affection are listed below that have been answered by the Experts:

In which states is alienation of affection law recognized?

Each of the United States has their own rules and regulations for this law. However, there are four states in the US, namely, Illinois, Mississippi, Utah and South Carolina that recognize alienation of affection laws.

Is it possible for someone to file a case under alienation of affection law in Maryland?

The state of Maryland has abolished the law, but allows petitions for divorces. Many states have different standards and not every state recognizes this law in general. Experts can answer state specific law questions.

Does the state of Illinois allow someone to sue for alienation of affection after being diagnosed with PTSD (Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) due to an affair?

Although IL recognizes it in some cases, the plaintiff must be able to prove conclusively that the defendants lack of affection was the prime cause of the affair or that PTSD was because of the alienation of affection that was caused by the affair from the spouse.

Can someone from a state which doesnt recognize alienation of affection laws file a case in a different state that recognizes the laws

A person can sue someone for alienation of affection only if the person being sued is a resident of a state that recognizes the laws. Apart from this, a person can also sue someone for any emotional distress caused by the person being sued.

Can a lawsuit be filed by someone in the state of Mississippi for alienation of affection after the divorce has been finalized?

It is possible for someone to be sued for even after the divorce. However, in the state of Mississippi, any lawsuit has to be filed within a time period of 3 years starting from the day on which the divorce was finalized.

Divorce attorneys mostly believe that the laws formed around alienation of affection should be abolished. However, there are certain trial lawyers who support such cases. Alienation of affection can range from employer/employee, parental alienation etc., to the biggest and most common form which is divorce-related. If you have any questions concerning alienation of affection laws www.justanswer.com/family-law.

Asbestos Lawsuits in Louisiana

In towns and cities throughout the United States, asbestos lawsuits are increasingly prolific as individuals exposed to asbestos twenty and thirty years ago are today developing and dying from mesothelioma. Mesothelioma is a rare and extremely lethal form of cancer, in which malignant cells are found in the protective sac covering most of the bodys internal organs. Mesothelioma, which is caused by exposure to asbestos, takes up to three decades to strike its victims. Those with the greatest risk of developing mesothelioma have worked on jobs where they inhaled asbestos particles, or have been exposed to asbestos dust and fiber in other ways.

Today, a growing number of mesothelioma lawsuits have succeeded in recovering hundreds of millions in compensation for the tens of thousands of mesothelioma victims. Compensation is paid by the companies that make these asbestos products, and enables victims to cover their medical expenses and to be compensated for their pain and suffering.

A current center of concern for asbestos victims is New Orleans. In the post-Katrina era, New Orleans and the entire state of Louisiana is undergoing a boom in construction a business infamous for its use of asbestos products. Post-storm rehabilitations of homes, the related large-scale demolitions, and even just the ubiquitous roofing jobs currently underway are exposing thousands of people to asbestos. Despite these dangers, however, Congress is considering a Bill that would prevent someone who becomes ill with cancer as a result of post-Katrina asbestos exposure from getting financial relief.

The introduction of the Bill is being motivated by calls for tort reform among asbestos-related industries. Financially crippled by increasingly high rewards to asbestos victims, these industries want a cap on their liability. They cite a recent asbestos lawsuit in Louisiana, in which homeowners who purchased asbestos-contaminated fill dirt sued the contractor who sold them the soil, as well as the oil company where the dirt had been removed. Although none of the plaintiffs have yet become sick, a jury awarded them compensatory and punitive damages due to their fear of harm (rather than actual harm). The verdict was upheld by a Louisiana appeals court, which ruled that any exposure to a harmful substance, no matter how slight, justifies a lawsuit.

The new Bill, set for debate by Congress in February, would halt asbestos lawsuits. The Bill is seeking to protect companies with asbestos liability from further lawsuits by paying into a government administered trust fund, which would screen claimants through established medical criteria. Victims would be awarded compensation based on the severity of their illness. The Bill specifically states that the fund would not cover victims of environmental and neighborhood exposure, with the prime example being post-Katrina victims in New Orleans and across Louisiana. The Bill is widely opposed by the medical community, as well as by labor unions and citizens rights activists, particularly in the state of Louisiana.

Seeking Compensation For Personal Injury

Accidents happen, sometimes to good people that are innocent of any apparent wrongdoing. Whether work related, on the job or being involved in a slip and fall accident on the street people are prone to accidents that are not their fault. On the Eastern seaboard in South Jersey, injury lawyers work to claim damages for their clients that have been involved in an accident that was not their fault. In many cases negligence is to blame when a person is injured through no fault of their own. Negligent people that are not conscious of their actions are held responsible for many accidents that take place on their property or through an unsafe working environment.

Personal injury lawyers working for the innocent victims of negligent accidents are out to claim recompense for damages from the pain and suffering of their clients. Many innocent people are injured each year and have to cover the medical expenses of their injuries as well as the time lost at work because of the nature of their injury. Along with these expenses lawyers also seek damages for the mental anguish that was caused to the injured person as a result of the stress that they suffer in being incapacitated or hospitalized and not knowing how they are going to restore their life to a state of normalcy.

The legal system of the United States is set up to protect the rights of all people and hand down judgments of fair justice to people that have been negligent or committed a criminal act. Through proper representation by an accredited attorney people that been injured through no fault of their own can have their day in court and claim damages from the responsible parties for their pain and suffering. In South Jersey injury lawyers are hard at work preparing cases for their clients that are against the responsible people that have done harm to another because they were in some way careless. Homeowners, business owners, corporations and local governments are all potential targets of injury lawyers that are seeking out justice for their clients.

In cases where personal injury results in a death the damages claimed by family members can skyrocket into the millions as was the case a few years ago when a pedestrian was struck by a city bus. Although the man did not die, he was seriously injured and as a result won a judgment against the city totaling eighteen million dollars for negligence on the part of the bus driver. The innocent victim was hospitalized for a period of six months and faced mounting medical expenses as well as having to rebuild his life after the accident. His injury lawyer sued the city and won the case claiming justice for the man that had suffered so much loss.

Humanitarian Reinstatement Of I-130 Petitions

Question: My mother who is a lawful permanent resident of the U.S, petitioned both my brother and sister who are living in the Philippines eight years ago. We received a notice recently from the National Visa Center stating that we have to pay the Affidavit of Support, (AOS) fees which are something like $800. I was ready to pay this amount when suddenly my mother died. I was told that this may affect the petitions of my siblings. Is this true?

What can I do? Should I pay the $800 to the NVC? What happens to the petitions now that my mother died? Can I be substituted as a sponsor for them instead? One Attorney in Los Angeles said that he can fix this case but he wants $20,000. What should I do?

Answer: Though we always think that once a petition has been filed for us by our relatives in the US, there are only very minor roadblocks we can expect along the way. This is the case most especially if the petition has approved and has been forwarded to the National Visa Center waiting for priority date. Nothing else should worry us and we can just go on living while the priority date becomes current. Or so we think.

Unfortunately, there are cases wherein the petitioner dies before his relatives can come to the U.S. This is often due to the fact that US immigration process has a huge backlog in most countries and that it takes years before a visa becomes available for an applicant. During this long wait, if the Petitioner dies, the petition by law is automatically invalidated and cancelled. A lot of beneficiaries of US immigration petitions, like you, are saddened and surprised that the petition for their loved ones is no longer valid once the petitioner dies. So, if the petitioner dies before the beneficiaries enter the U.S. as immigrants, the case is over.

There is NO need to pay the NVC any fees because 1) the fees will not be refunded, 2)the U.S. Embassy will no longer process the application once it learns that the Petitioner died. The Embassy will instead, send the petition back to the USCIS office that originally approved it back in the states.

In most cases, that is the end of the line. The beneficiaries, even though they waited patiently for years and years can no longer come to the U.S. You cannot step into the shoes of the petitioner and be a substitute sponsor. However, there is a way to appeal this revocation of the petition. The process is called a Request for Humanitarian Reinstatement or also called Request for Humanitarian Revalidation. Humanitarian Reinstatement was made available by immigration regulations to cover these kinds of situations. It is entirely discretionary with the USCIS and is not guaranteed, but if you can show that there are circumstances justifying the reinstatement of the petition, the USCIS can revalidate and approve the petition and the beneficiaries can come to the U.S. as if the petitioner were still alive. The USCIS usually looks at the following factors: 1) disruption of an established family unit; (2) hardship to U.S. citizen or LPR family; (3) age and health of beneficiary; (4) length of beneficiarys residence if any in the United States; (5) whether beneficiary has a foreign residence (if in the U.S.) to which he can return; (6) undue delay by USCIS or the embassy in processing the petition or visa; and (7) extent of beneficiarys family ties in the United States.

For a Humanitarian Reinstatement to be applicable, the petition must have first been approved before the death the petitioner. Secondly, the beneficiary must arrange to have a substitute sponsor who may file for the required affidavit of support. This must be someone who can establish the means to support the beneficiaries with an annual income amount equal to at least 125 percent of the Federal Poverty line.

The qualified substitute sponsor must be a close relative such as the spouse, parent, mother-in-law, father-in-law, sibling, child (if at least 18 years of age), son, daughter, son-in-law, daughter-in-law, sister-in-law, brother-in-law, grandparent, grandchild of a sponsored alien or a legal guardian of the sponsored alien. Friends and distant relatives cannot qualify.

As far as paying an attorney $20,000 for submitting a request for reinstatement, I would question any lawyer who charges such exorbitant fees. Would you pay $1000 for a $1 lottery ticket without a guarantee of winning? Sure, there is a lot of work involved but there is no need to gouge or take advantage of persons who are suffering the loss of a loved one. I, for one, do not practice law that way. I would be weary of anyone who says it is a sure thing or I guarantee it. By law, reinstatement is discretionary. No one, can say if a request will be approved and it is unethical to claim it is a sure thing. Stay away from such boastful claims. You will be $20,000 richer and a lot happier.

Finding the Right Divorce Attorney

Fifty percent of all marriages in the United States end in divorce. That’s not a great statistic, but it’s true. Although divorces may be emotionally combative, most divorces do not end up in a contested trial. With a divorce attorney’s help, parties can negotiate settlements for things such as spousal support, child custody, division of property and so on. Finding the best divorce attorney for your particular case is not an easy task. As you can imagine many divorce lawyers will take your case but they have no vested interest in the final outcome. That’s why your own due diligence is so important when it comes to finding and hiring the right divorce attorney.

Divorce laws are different from state to state so you need to find a divorce lawyer in your local area to best handle your divorce case. You may know of a great lawyer in California that one of your friends or relatives used but if you live in Massachusetts, that won’t do you much good. There are many things you need to consider when choosing a divorce attorney and I’ve tried to outline what I consider to be the most important factors.

Since divorce is not an uncommon occurrence today, chances are you know someone who has already gone through a divorce. So word of mouth from family members, friends and coworkers would be one of the best ways to narrow the field down.

If you have time, you could visit your local courthouse and witness different attorneys handling their clients divorce cases. As I mentioned earlier, most divorces do not end up in trial, but if yours does, you would certainly want the best divorce attorney to handle your divorce case.

Research the attorney you’re considering with the state listing of trials and motions. Since this person will be representing you, make sure everything checks out before you make your decision.

Don’t limit your search to one divorce attorney. Interview many. Find the person you’re most comfortable with and understands what you’re looking for. Ask what kind of divorce attorney they are. Are you and your spouse looking for a settlement, or do you think your case will go to trial? If it will go to trial, you want a divorce lawyer with lots of trial experience.

You could also find out who is on the board of matrimonial lawyers in your local state and the better lawyers are usually on it.

Always have a written agreement with your divorce attorney. Do not hire your attorney on an oral agreement only. This can lead to misunderstandings and could end up costing you more time and money than you bargained for. Make sure your fee agreement, or retainer, is in writing and you understand the terms completely.

Last but not least, get references. There’s nothing more important than references.

Needless to say, this list could go on and on, but you should have a good sense of what to look for. Every case is different so make sure the divorce attorney you choose, is familiar with cases like yours and he/she has your best interest at heart.

New Jersey Immigration AttorneyLawyer

Getting immigration permission from the higher authorities of any country can be a hard task for those people who are planning to settle abroad. Therefore, it is necessary to seek an experienced immigration lawyer. Immigration is extremely critical so choosing the right qualified New Jersey immigration attorney will make the difference. One should always make sure to choose an attorney who is licensed to practice in the United States jurisdiction and is in good standing with the state bar of New Jersey.

If you are in New Jersey, USA then before hiring any Immigration Lawyer in New Jersey, you should make sure that the firm should be dedicated to protect your rights and should handle your case with the personal attention. Samuel D. Bornstein, P.A. gives full attention and support to their clients. Samuel D. Bornstein, P.A. provides the time to overcome the client’s requirement regarding the immigration case and their trained immigration lawyers quickly determine how to resolve your problems through the legal structure. From the very basic, family and business visas to the naturalization and deportation cases they provide the complete knowledge, information and experience to assist with all your immigration requirements.

The immigration lawyers of Samuel D. Bornstein, P.A. keenly recognizes the specified complications that can arise when involved with federal immigration regulations. In addition, as a New Jersey immigration lawyer, they know circumstances and confusion that can surround immigration, deportation, naturalization and other issues for you and your family members. Samuel D. Bornstein, P.A. helps individuals and businesses with all the manner of immigration, naturalization, deportation issues, including obtaining of temporary visas, etc. They offer the following services:

Family and Employment Based Cases Deportation & Removal All Visas and Consulate Processing Employment-Based Legal Permanent Residence Citizenship & Naturalization

Remember, with an experienced, focused, attentive, strategic and creative representation, you can resolve immigration issues efficiently. Proficient law firm and experts primarily concentrate on comprehensive details and gives personal attention to their clients. This approach provides an edge in obtaining a successful and an efficient resolution of both individual and business matters. Initial discussion of your immigration issue, to schedule a consultation or case evaluation could be extremely helpful. About The Author:

Author, Samuel D. Bornstein, is associated with the law firm () and has 40 years of experience in representing individuals and a wide variety of businesses from Fortune 100 companies that need specialized assistance to smaller companies that look to the firm as their “in house” lawyer for general day-to-day advice. The firm is experienced with transactional work and litigation, emphasizing corporate and partnership operations, employment and workplace law, professional negligence, malpractice matters, immigration, civil rights and real state matters and insurance defense.

Islamic Divorce in New York State

Muslims residing in the State of New York are in a dual situation when it comes to the implementation of family law. On one hand, they are governed by the religious law of Islam, known as Islamic sharia, and on the other hand, the secular family law of the state of New York. To Muslims, the family law of Islam mandates that marriage and divorce among Muslims should be done in accordance with the Islamic sharia, regardless of whether they live in an Islamic or secular country. Civil divorce decrees obtained by secular courts are not recognized by Islamic sharia.

Under Islamic law, a Muslim man may marry a non-Muslim woman, whereas a Muslim woman is prohibited from marrying non-Muslim man. Under these rules, a non-Muslim woman marrying a Muslim man in compliance with Islamic sharia is subject to the rules of Islam in the areas of divorce, child custody and inheritance. In other words, a non-Muslim woman who gets married to a Muslim man in accordance with Islamic sharia, loses custody of her children in case of divorce, or in case the husband dies. Consequently, a non-Muslim woman marrying to a Muslim man is forced, under the rules of Islamic sharia, to surrender custody of her son when he reaches the age of seven, and her daughter at the age of nine. She also prohibited from inheritance. These rules are applied throughout Muslim countries with a system of sharia-based family law in place.

Marriage Contracts in Islamic Sharia
Under the rules of Islamic sharia, the marriage contract should include: (1) names and addresses of the couple; (2) name of the guardian of the bride; (3) names and addresses of two male witnesses; and (4) the amount of mahr, or a promise of money or its equivalent to be given by the husband to the bride. Like any other civil contracts, Islamic marriage contract should be in the form of offer and acceptance by the parties.

Contrary to the popular notion that mahr is dowry; it is not. A dowry is what the wife contributes to her marriage while mahr is an obligation on the husband to pay his future bride. Others call it a gift; it is not a gift either, because mahr is an obligation on the husband and is mandated by the Quran. The Quran calls it sadaq (Quran 4:4). If no stipulation of mahr is provided in the marriage contract, the marriage remains legal and in effect; in such a situation, the “qadi” (judge) will determine the amount of mahr, which remains a property of the wife alone. The amount of mahr can be paid partially: up-front (Arabic, muqaddam), and deferred until divorce or death of the husband (Arabic, muakhar), or it may be prepaid in full before the consummation of the marriage.

Legal Status of the Mahr Provision in Islamic Law
The most important feature of the mahr provision is that one party makes an offer and the other can accept or refuse to accept. It is a financial settlement between the couple in case a divorce occurs or the husband dies. Although, Muslim women do not personally bargain for the mahr agreements, and, in almost all of the divorce cases that I have seen so far, in the Middle East, Europe and the United States, Islamic marriage agreements involving mahr are negotiated by the representative (Arabic Wali) of the bride.

In the State of New York, an Islamic marriage contract involving mahr may be considered premarital agreement for a divorce settlement. In legal terms, this is called a concurrence of wills or meeting of the minds of the future husband and his future wife. This also means that each party from an objective perspective engaged in conduct manifesting their acceptance, and a contract was formed when both parties met such a requirement.

The basic rule is that a premarital contract will be interpreted and enforced in accordance with the law of the state in which it was entered into. Thus an Islamic marriage contract signed in Egypt according to the Egyptian law for example, must be interpreted according to the law of Egypt. The Restatement of the Law Second Conflict of Laws 3d, Chapter 8, Contracts, is clear about the law for the state chosen by the parties to a contract. The text of the Restatement reads: “(1) The law of the state chosen by the parties to govern their contractual rights and duties will be applied if the particular issues is one which the parties could have resolved by an explicit provision in their agreement directed to that issue.”

Looking at both academic and case studies in this area of law, this article points the reader in the direction of the current trends in the treatment of mahr in New York State and to address Islamic family law issues relevant to New York State law and the working of its legal system. The mahr provision in an Islamic marriage contract has been interpreted differently in other states. For more information on treatment of mahr in other states, the individual should seek legal advice.

Interpretation of the Mahr in New York State
Muslim men and women assert their Islamic legal rights in American family courts; as a result, Islamic sharia governing their marriages and divorces becomes an important and complicated part of the American legal landscape. This leads to a discussion of court cases involving Muslim marriage and divorce litigations in the State of New York, as well as whether New York courts will enforce the terms of Muslim marriage contracts, mainly the mahr provision.

New York courts have jurisdiction over divorce cases within its territory, with specific focus on premarital contract structured in accordance with foreign laws. And, various state courts have found no public policy prohibition in enforcing such agreements. In New York, a mahr agreement may be interpreted within the context of a contractual obligation.

In Aziz v. Aziz, the couple entered into a mahr agreement which required the payment of $5,032, with $32 advanced and $5,000 deferred until divorce. The New York court ruled that the contract conformed to New Yorks contract requirements, and that “its secular terms are enforceable as a contractual obligation, notwithstanding that it was entered into as part of a religious ceremony.” (See Aziz v. Aziz, N.Y.S.2d at 124).

In this case, the husband argued that the mahr agreement provided in the Islamic marriage contract could not be enforced because it was a religious document and was not enforceable as a contract. The wife responded by stating that although the mahr is a religious stipulation; its secular terms can be properly enforced by the court. The court agreed with the wife and ordered the husband to pay the deferred mahr. The court found that the mahr agreement complied with the necessary statutory requirements to be recognized and enforceable as a premarital agreement and held that the secular terms of the mahr agreement were “enforceable as a contractual obligation, notwithstanding that it was entered into as part of a religious ceremony.” The court stated that the mahr agreed to by the couple constituted a secular debt of $5,000 and ordered the husband to fulfill the terms of the agreement.

The case was based entirely on another New York of Appeals case of Avitzur v. Avitzur involving a Jewish Ketubah in which a Jewish woman sued for specific performance to force her ex-husband to appear before a Beth Din (Jewish Court). Under Jewish Law, only a man can grant a divorce, or “Get”. Until he does, the woman cannot remarry within the Jewish faith to anybody. Her children will then be considered illegitimate. In order that a “Get” may be obtained, both husband and wife have to appear before the Beth Din. The husband refused to appear, leaving the woman in a state of marital limbo, making her an “agunah.” The New York Court of Appeals found that the Jewish ketubah constituted a valid premarital agreement that could be enforced despite the religious underpinnings of the agreement.

Conclusion
As the second largest religion, and with the number of Muslims immigrating to the United State on the rise, American courts are more frequently looking into Islamic divorce litigations between Muslim couples. Out of respect to Islamic law and culture, American courts attempt to apply certain provisions from Islamic sharia, such as the mahr contract in divorce cases involving Muslim couples. By doing so, American courts risk involving their arguments with gender and economic inequalities between Muslim men and women, leaving Muslim women destitute. The application of mahr agreements in Islamic divorce in the United States prevents women from exercising their rights to equitable distribution of marital assets upon divorce. If the courts need to extend their respect to Islamic law in divorce situations, they should look into whether the wife had a choice in signing the mahr agreement. Muslim women do not personally bargain for the mahr agreements, and, in almost all of the divorce cases that I have seen so far, in the Middle East, Europe and the United States, the Islamic marriage agreements involving mahr are negotiated by the representative (Arabic Wali) of the bride. Other states do not regard the mahr to be a premarital contract. Individuals seeking information on the treatment of mahr by other states should seek legal advice from a competent attorney.

DISCLAIMER: While every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of this publication, it is not intended to provide legal advice as individual situations will differ and should be discussed with an expert and/or lawyer. For specific technical or legal advice on the information provided and related topics, please contact the author.

Republishing of this article is hereby granted by the author.

Hemp And Legal Implications

Copyright 2006 Francesca Black

In 1619 Jamestown Colony, Virginia enacted laws ordering farmers to grow hemp. Similar laws were enacted in Massachusetts in 1631, Connecticut in 1632 and the Chesapeake Colonies in the mid-1700’s.

Even though the U.S. government encouraged American farmers to grow hemp for WWII and had even accepted it as payment of taxes in Colonial America, it is now prohibited to grow hemp in the United States.

Cannabis hemp was legal tender in most of the Americas from 1631 until the early 1800’s. you could even pay your taxes with cannabis hemp. In the mid-to-late 1800’s the 2nd & 3rd most commonly used medications were concentrated cannabis extracts and resins (a.k.a. hashish). At one time American companies Eli Lily, Squibb and Park Davis produced cannabis extract medicines but clearly that is no longer the case..

Today the THC levels in industrial hemp are so low that no one could ever get high from smoking it. Moreover, hemp contains a relatively high percentage of another cannabinoid, CBD, that actually blocks the marijuana high. Hemp, it turns out, is not only not marijuana; it could be called ‘antimarijuana.’ Although opponents of hemp production claim that hemp fields will be used to hide marijuana fields, this is unlikely because cross-pollination between hemp and marijuana plants would significantly reduce the potency of the marijuana plant.

On March 12, 1998, Canada legalized hemp production and set a limit of 0.3% THC content that may be present in the plants and requires that all seeds be certified for THC content.

In 1942 the US government strongly encouraged hemp cultivation to help with the war effort, going so far as to produce a film entitled “Hemp For Victory”. Hemp was grown commercially (with increasing government interference) in the United States until the 1950s. While congress expressly expected the continued production of industrial hemp, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics lumped industrial hemp with marijuana, as its successor the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), does to this day. Even though the US government encouraged American farmers to grow hemp for WWII and had even accepted it as payment of taxes in Colonial America, it is now prohibited to grow hemp in the United States. While industrial hemp and marijuana may look somewhat alike to the untrained eye, an easily trained eye can easily distinguish the difference.

The European Union subsidizes its farmers to grow industrial hemp. Hemp seed is not psychoactive and cannot be used as a drug. Hemp Seed does not contain THC. From 1842 through the 1880s, extremely strong marijuana (then known as cannabis extractums), hashish extracts, tinctures, and elixirs were routinely the second and third most-used medicines in America for humans (from birth through old age). These extracts were also used in veterinary medicine until the 1920s.

The illogical and unrealistic reasons for not growing hemp should be set aside now, as this crop will be a wonderful economic boon. In 1935 116 million pounds (58,000 tons) of hemp seed was used to make paints and varnishes yet it has been effectively prohibited in the United States since the 1950s.

Hemp was doomed by the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937, which placed an extremely high tax and made it effectively impossible to grow industrial hemp. While congress expressly expected the continued production of industrial hemp, the Federal Bureau of Narcotics lumped industrial hemp with marijuana, as its successor the United States Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA), does to this day. While industrial hemp and marijuana may look somewhat alike to the untrained eye, an easily trained eye can easily distinguish the difference.

No marijuana grower would hide marijuana plants in a hemp field. Marijuana is grown widely spaced to maximize flowers and leaves; hemp is grown tightly-spaced to maximize stalk and is usually harvested before it goes to seed. It is also the first place where law enforcement officials would look. No one would want to smoke industrial hemp. Industrial hemp has a THC content of between 0.05 and 1%. Marijuana has a THC content of 3% to 20%. To receive a standard psychoactive dose would require a person to power-smoke 10-12 hemp cigarettes over a very short period of time. The large volume, high temperature of vapor, gas and smoke would be difficult for a person to withstand, much less enjoy.

The US State Department must certify each year that a foreign nation is cooperating in the war on drugs. The European Union subsidizes its farmers to grow industrial hemp. Those nations are not on this list, because the US State Department distinguishes the difference between hemp and marijuana. Over 30 industrialized democracies do distinguish hemp from marijuana. International treaties regarding marijuana make an exception for hemp, and trade alliances such as NAFTA allow for the importation of hemp. In fact NAFTA allow for the importation of hemp. All members of the Group of Seven Industrialized Nations permit hemp cultivation except one-the United States.

Choosing the right immigration asylum lawyer

When you ask for asylum in the United States of America, you must have a very good reason for doing so. Immigration asylum is generally given to people that have been oppressed by the governments of their own countries, as a result of several reasons ranging from skin colour, sexual orientation, and race to political differences, different views and ideas, and even speaking your mind and standing up for what is right. However, asking for asylum is not enough to get you in the clear. You have to convince the US government that you deserve it, and that you really are persecuted by your government. This is where an immigration asylum lawyer comes handy. That is not easy, and can be quite daunting and difficult if done alone. You don’t have any experience practicing law in the United States, and you certainly don’t know the entire constitution and immigration legislations, not to mention the fact that you might not even be able to speak the language correctly, let alone compile a case and build a strong defence around it. The best chance you have is with an immigration asylum lawyer

by your side. And while you’re at it, why not pick the best one? Picking the best one is a hard thing to do, because each and every one of them will advertise themselves as much as they can as being the best asylum immigration So what you have to do is look beyond the advertising and look at how they actually present themselves. Look at the immigration asylum lawyer’s past work, look at how they express themselves, and look for their confidence in your case. If you feel that a certain immigration asylum lawyer is confident, you will feel confident around them and you will know that together you will have higher chances of success. After you make up your mind, and you chose your immigration asylum lawyer, you have to work with him/her on your case. You have to build a case together, build a solid defences together, compile evidence together, and do everything that is in your power to iron out all the kinks and creases before you go to your interview or court hearing.

How Couples Could Benefit From Mediation

So often we hear about how high the rate of divorce is in both the United Kingdom and the United States. Divorces can be emotional, time consuming, and expensive affairs. More than ever, couples are being encouraged to use mediation services in order to solve their difficulties, in order to avoid all the difficulties of a divorce.

When emotions are running high and couples don’t know how they can possibly make things work anymore, divorce can seem like the only way out. Communication is the key to all good relationships and when communication breaks down, relationships tend to break down too. Mediation services are great because they teach you how to talk to each other about how you’re feeling in an open and honest fashion.

It can be difficult to talk about our feelings, even to those who are closest to us. Having difficult conversations can be uncomfortable, and sometimes we need a helping hand. Despite the fact we are arguing with our partner, we generally don’t like upsetting other people.

Conflicts between loved ones can be particularly difficult to handle because relationships are so steeped in history. Mediation is future focused, so an independent mediator will attempt to move the relationship forwards rather than allowing the couple to dwell on past events. Bringing up old arguments and past mistakes does not resolve anything and is no basis for a healthy relationship.

This is one fundamental way in which mediation and divorce differ. Divorce courts do not accept ‘irreconcilable differences’ as a valid reason for couples wanting to split up. They instead insist that fault is blamed on one of the parties involved. This is perhaps why mediation is becoming such a popular option for arguing couples. Divorce is not as simple as one person being wrong and the other right; it is infinitely more complicated than that.

If children are involved, then mediation could be useful for a couple as well. If talking about your differences doesn’t solve them, it could at least bring some civility to proceedings. If you still decide to divorce then it is best to do so in a civil manner, so the children are not left feeling anymore confused and upset than they need to be. Deciding on how often children are to be seen and who stays with who is another big issue when it comes to divorce, and it is better if this can be settled outside of the divorce courts in order to avoid as much distress as is possible.

Ultimately, divorce sometimes is the only option for some couples. However, it is certainly better to do everything in your power to attempt to reconcile the relationship outside of the court room to begin with.